Sifat fisik suatu zat memiliki struktur molekul yang bervariasi dengan dayatarik antarmolekul – ikatan hydrogen dan gaya van der Waals.

~ Teori tolakan pasangan elektron valensi
Menurut teori ini, jumlah pasangan elektron menentukan penyusunan pasangan-pasangan elektron di sekitar atom pusat molekul.
~ Hibridisasi Orbital Atom
Bila elektron-elektron mengisi orbital atom mengikuti prinsip Aufbau, elektron akan mengisi orbital atom yang berenergi terendah. Dua elektron diizinkan mengisi satu orbital.

Teori Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR)
Penggambaran bentuk molekul dengan bantuan VSEPR didasari oleh penggambaran struktur Lewis sebagai model 2 dimensi
Dalam teori VSEPR atom pusat akan menempatkan secara relatif grup (bisa berupa atom atau pasangan elektron) pada posisi tertentu
Prinsip dasarnya: masing-masing grup elektron valensi ditempatkan sejauh mungkin satu sama lain untuk meminimalkan gaya tolakan.
Notasi yang dipakai: A = atom pusat, X = atom sekitar yang berikatan dan E = grup elektron valensi yang tidak berikatan (sunyi)

Penggambaran Ion dan Molekul dengan Struktur Lewis
– Dalam penggambaran molekul/ion dengan struktur Lewis kita harus mengetahui rumus senyawa dan posisi relatif masing- masing atom
– Jumlah total elektron valensi dari seluruh atom didistribusikan keseluruh atom yang berikatan dan sisanya menjadi pasangan elektron sunyi (tak berikatan)

Unsur2 yang memiliki struktur sederhana
eX : Unsur-unsur Non Logam
1. P4, tetraatomik molekul; tiap molekulnya terdiri atas 4 atom P
2. Belerang, S8 setiap molekulnya terdiri atas 8 atom S; oktaatomik molekul
3. Sedangkan khlor adalah diatomik molekul, Cl2
4. Argon, (Ar) yang berupa monoatomik molekul

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